century later the electric power plant is no longer a novel piece of machinery that Three kinds of power plants are scattered around the American landscape. Thermal Power: Overall plant components in Block diagrams indicating the air circuit, coal and ash sodium graphite, breeder) layout of nuclear power plant. PDF | On Jul 11, , Zheng-Fei Hu and others published Thermal Power Plants.
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Application of System Analysis for Thermal Power Plant Heat Thermal power plants are one of the most important process industries for engineering profes‐. Trends and Future Outlook for Thermal Power Plants. Fuji Electric's Medium- capacity Steam Turbines “FET Series”. Present Developmental Status of Fuji . Page |1 INTRODUCTION: A thermal power plant converts heat energy of coal into electrical energy. coal is burnt in a boiler which converts water into steam.
This heat is then transferred to the water present in the heat exchanger tubes. As a result, super heated steam at very high temperature is produced. Once the process of steam formation is accomplished, the remaining process is exactly similar to a thermal power plant, as this steam will further drive the turbine blades to generate electricity.
Hydro-Electric Power Station In Hydro-electric plants the energy of the falling water is utilized to drive the turbine which in turn runs the generator to produce electricity.
This energy is converted to shaft work where the water falls through an appreciable vertical distance. This power is utilized for rotating the alternator shaft, to convert it to equivalent electrical energy. An important point to be noted is that, the hydro-electric plants are of much lower capacity compared to their thermal or nuclear counterpart. For this reason hydro plants are generally used in scheduling with thermal stations, to serve the load during peak hours.
They in a way assist the thermal or the nuclear plant to deliver power efficiently during periods of peak hours. Advantages of Hydro Electric Power Station It requires no fuel, water is used for generation of electrical energy. It is neat and clean energy generation. Construction is simple, less maintenance is required. It helps in irrigation and flood control also. Availability of water depends upon weather conditions. It requires high transmission cost as the plant is located in hilly areas.
In addition, in some nuclear stations, the turbine generator can power the station's loads while the station is online, without requiring external power.
This is achieved via station service transformers which tap power from the generator output before they reach the step-up transformer. Bruce Nuclear Generating Station , the largest nuclear power facility  The economics of nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs.
Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear stations. Cost estimates take into account station decommissioning and nuclear waste storage or recycling costs in the United States due to the Price Anderson Act. With the prospect that all spent nuclear fuel could potentially be recycled by using future reactors, generation IV reactors are being designed to completely close the nuclear fuel cycle.
However, up to now, there has not been any actual bulk recycling of waste from a NPP, and on-site temporary storage is still being used at almost all plant sites due to construction problems for deep geological repositories.
Only Finland has stable repository plans, therefore from a worldwide perspective, long-term waste storage costs are uncertain. Construction, or capital cost aside, measures to mitigate global warming such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading , increasingly favor the economics of nuclear power.
Some operational nuclear reactors release non-radioactive water vapor In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out. To date all operating nuclear power stations were developed by state-owned or regulated utilities where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers.
Safety and accidents[ edit ] Professor of sociology Charles Perrow states that multiple and unexpected failures are built into society's complex and tightly-coupled nuclear reactor systems. Such accidents are unavoidable and cannot be designed around. This leads to on average one serious accident happening every eight years worldwide. A nuclear power plant cannot explode like a nuclear weapon because the fuel for uranium reactors is not enriched enough, and nuclear weapons require precision explosives to force fuel into a small enough volume to go supercritical.
Most reactors require continuous temperature control to prevent a core meltdown , which has occurred on a few occasions through accident or natural disaster, releasing radiation and making the surrounding area uninhabitable.
Plants must be defended against theft of nuclear material and attack by enemy military planes or missiles, or planes hijacked by terrorists. Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries.
They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants. Threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining , processing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste.
The hot water modifies the environmental conditions for marine flora and fauna. They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents. Actual construction costs often exceed estimates, and spent fuel management costs do not have a clear time limit.
Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons. With the commercialization of nuclear power , the reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors. Finally, the breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinides , closing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by more than 60 times.
Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferation , the potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorism , the political challenges of repository siting a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fuel , and because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle. Electricity plays a crucial role in both industrial and agricultural sectors and, therefore, consumption of electricity in the country is an indicator of productivity and growth.
In view of this, power development has been given high-priority in development programme. The first steam station was set up in Calcutta in By the end of , the total capacity was mW, comprising. Hydro 74 mW, thermal 50 mW and diesel 6 mW.
In , the total capacity goes to mW. There was very slow development during due to Second World War. The total generation capacity was mW by the end of The development really started only after with the launching of the first five-year plan. These projects resulted in the stepping up of power generation. At the end of the First Plan, generation capacity stood at Emphasis in Second Plan was on development of basic and heavy industries and related need to step up power generation.
Installed capacity at the end of Second Plan reached 57 lakh kw. During the Third Plan period , emphasis was on extending power supply to rural areas.
A significant development in this phase was emergence of Inter-state Grid System. The country was divided into Five Regions to promote power development on a Regional Basis. Fourth Plan envisaged need for central participation in expansion of power generation programmes at strategic locations to supplement activities in the State Sector.
Progress during the period covering Third Plan, three Annual Plans and Fourth Plan was substantial with installed capacity rising to During the Sixth Plan, total capacity addition of Achievement, however, has been The Seventh Plan power programme envisaged aggregate generating capacity of 22, mW in utilities. During the Seventh Plan, Year wise commissioning of Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear Capacity added during to is given in.
The Working Group on Power set up particularly the Planning Commission in the context of formulation of power programme for the Eighth Plan has recommended a capacity addition programme of 38, mW for the Eighth Plan period, out of which it is expected that the Central Sector Projects would add a capacity of 17, mW.
The programme for the first year of the Eighth Plan envisages generation of additional capacity of 4, The department is concerned with policy formulation, perspective planning, procuring of projects for investment decisions, monitoring of projects, training and manpower development, administration and enactment of Legislation in regard to power generation, transmission and distribution.
The depart-ment is also responsible for administration of the Electricity Supply Act, and the Indian Electricity Act, and undertakes all amendments thereto. The Electricity Supply Act, , forms basis of administrative structure of electricity industry.
The act was amended in to enlarge scope and function of CEA and enable of creation of companies for generation of electricity. The Central Electricity Authority advises Department of Power on technical, financial and economic matters. Act, , is also under administrative control of the Department of Power. Programmes of rural electrification are within the purview of Rural Electrification Corporation REC which is a financing agency. In addition to this, Energy Manage-ment Centre, an autonomous body, was established in collaboration with the European Economic Community, which is responsible for training, research, and information exchange between energy professionals.
Significant progress has been made in the expansion of transmission and distribution facilities in the Country. Total length of transmission lines of 66 kV and above increased from 10, ckt circuit km in December to 2. Highest transmission voltage in the Country at present is kV and above ckt km of kV lines had been constructed up to March, and about ckt km of these are in actual operation.
Prior to the Fourth Plan, Transmission Systems in the Country were developed more or less as state systems, as generating stations were built primarily in the State Sector.
When State Transmission Systems had developed to a reasonable extent in the Third Plan, potentiality of inter-connected operation of individual state systems with other neighboring systems within the region northern, western, southern, eastern and north-eastern was thought of. Fairly well inter-connected systems at voltage of kV with progressive overlay of kV are presently available in all regions of the Country except North-eastern Region.
With creation of Two Generation Corporations, namely National Thermal Power Corporation and National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation in , the Centre had started playing an increasingly larger role in the development of grid systems. The kV transmission systems being constructed by these organisa-tions as part of their generation projects, along with kV inter-state and inter-regional transmission lines would form part of the National Power Grid.
National Power Grid will promote integrated operation and transfer of power from one system to another with ultimate objective of ensuring optimum utilisation of resources in the Country. India now has well integrated Regional Power Systems and exchange of power is taking place regularly between a large numbers of state systems, which greatly facilitates better utilisation of existing capacity.
Unlike black oil, it is a non-conventional energy source. A part of the endless cycle in which moisture is raised by the sun, formed into clouds and then dropped back to earth to feed the rivers whose flow can be harnessed to produce hydroelectric power. Water as a source of power is non-polluting which is a prime requirement of power industry today.
The world hydel installed capacity as per estimate is only 65 million kW or 4. Still India has got enough hydel potential to develop to meet the increasing power needs of the nation. The abundant availability of water resources, its fairly even distribution and overall economy in developing this source of energy enhanced its development in India, The other factors responsible in its rapid development are indigenous technological skill, material and cheap labour.
In the IX five-year plan; the Government considering the importance of this source has included a number of hydro-projects. Lack of suitable. Site is an added problem for taking up hydro-projects. Hydropower was once the dominant source of electrical energy in the world and still is in Canada, Norway and Switzerland.
But its use has decreased in other countries since s, as relatively less expensive fuel was easily available. In the light of fuel scarcity and its up surging prices, the role of hydropower is again re-examined and more emphasis is being laid on waterpower development. As per Mr. Small hydro-projects ranging from 10 to kW are becoming more feasible as standardization of major equipment reduces costs.
India is yet to start in the field of micro-hydro projects, which is one major way for solving the present power problem. Hydro-projects generate power at low cost, it is non conventional, easy to manage, pollution free and makes no crippling demands on the transportation system. But the major drawback is, it operates at the mercy of nature. Poor rainfall has on a number of occasions shown the dangers of over dependence on hydropower.
Let rivers flow and let rains shower the earth with prosperity is the ancient prayer chanted by Riches and continued to be chanted even now.
The development of hydropower systems as a back up for thermal systems has significant advantages. The flexible operation of hydraulic turbines makes them suitable for.
Peak load operation. Therefore, the development of hydropower is not only economical but it also solves the major problem of peak load. The present Indian policy of power development gives sufficient importance for the hydel-power development.
The next important source for power generation is fuel in the form of coal, oil or gas. Unfortunately, the oil and gas resources are very much limited in India. Only few power plants use oil or gas as a source of energy. India has to import most of the oil required and so it is not desirable to use it for power generation.
The known resources of coal in India are estimated to be , million tonnes, which are localized in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
The present rate of annual production of coal is nearly million tonnes of which 40 million-tonnes are used for power generation. Due to the large resources of coal available in the country, enough emphasis has been given for thermal Power plants in the IX plan period. The location of hydel-power plants is mostly determined by the natural topography available and location of thermal plants is dictated by the source of fuel or transportation facilities available if the, power plant is to be located far from coalmines.
For nuclear power plant any site can be selected paying due consideration to safety and load. India has to consider nuclear generation in places remote from coal mines and water power sites.
The states which are poor in natural resources and those which have little untapped conventional resources for future development have to consider the development of nuclear plants. The nuclear fuel which is commonly used for nuclear power plants is uranium. Deposits of uranium have been located in Bihar and Rajasthan.
It is estimated that the present reserves of uranium available in country may be sufficient to sustain 10, mW power plants for its thorium into nuclear Indian lifetime. Another possible nuclear power source is thorium, which is abundant in this country, estimated at , tonnes. But the commercial use of this nuclear fuel is tied up with development of fast breeder reactor which converts energy economy must wait for the development of economic methods for using thorium which is expected to be available before the end of twentieth century.
The major hurdle in the development of nuclear power in this country is lack of technical facility and foreign exchange required to download the main component of nuclear power plant. Bhabha had envisaged mW of power from nuclear reactors by —81 which was subsequently scaled down to a more realistic level of mW by Dr.
Sarabhai out of this only MW has materialized which is less than 1. Moreover the performance of nuclear plants has been satisfactory compared to thermal plants.
The overall power scene in the country shows heavy shortages almost in all states. The situation is going to be aggravated in coming years as the demand is increasing and the power industry is not keeping pace with the increasing demand.